Wed. Dec 1st, 2021


A supermassive black hole binary.

In 2015, there were two black holes Caught together When the waves they created in spacetime were detected on Earth. Since then, gravitational wave detectors have found many more of these aggregations that have expanded our understanding of the most epic collisions known to science. Now, a team of astrophysicists examining data from these detections suggests that supermassive black holes are actually expanding alongside the universe.

The universe is expanding at an accelerating rate, but it’s not that all things are just getting bigger. Rather, massive galaxies are moving away from us (and each other) as the space between them expands. We don’t feel this expansion locally, because gravity unites our solar system and other collections of matter, but when we look at space and notice distant galaxies accelerating from us, we see the expansion (the light we see from them is “red”). -Changed “, meaning the wavelength has been expanded by the extended space). No one knows why the universe is expanding faster and faster, but astrophysicists have unequivocally blamed Something Call The power of darkness.

According to a new research paper, however, the expansion of the universe is actually magnifying some objects. The mass of supermassive black holes is large enough and the lifespan is large enough to be affected by this expansion, the researchers argue, meaning that unlike Earth or the Sun or other gravitational bound objects, black holes increase significantly alongside the universe. There was paper Published Last week in the Astrophysical Journal Letter.

The 2015 detection was made in collaboration with LIGO-Virgo, an underground test that uses laser beams and mirrors to capture waves in space known as gravitational waves. The team at the back of the new paper looked at the black hole as two of the 2015 signal-generating objects.

“In any individual integration, LIGO-Virgo sees something like the last 10 seconds of an exciting trailer for a new series. Our proposed model describes the arc of the entire story of the entire series, placing the clips used to create the trailer in context, ”explained Duncan Farah, an astrophysicist at the University of Hawaii in Manohar, in an email.

The team modeled the size of black holes in proportion to the universe’s expansion and found that the black holes would grow as they spiraled toward each other. (This expansion of the black holes would happen even to ones that weren’t spiraling toward one another—it’s just that those are the ones we can see through detections of their gravitational waves.) So too would the black holes at the centers of galaxies expand along with the universe.

Kevin Croker, also an astrophysicist at the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa and a co-author of the paper, told Gizmodo in an email that “We have proposed that the mass of any black hole is proportional to the size of the universe, raised to some exponent. This exponent gives the ‘strength’ of the coupling. In any expanding universe, all black hole masses will grow in this way. If the expansion of the universe is accelerating, the black hole masses will grow faster and faster. So it’s not the acceleration of the expansion that causes the growth, just the expansion itself.”

Typically, black holes are modeled in a universe that doesn’t expand—basically, it’s a momentary measurement that allows astrophysicists to calculate things like a black hole’s mass without having to worry about how the universe’s expansion changes things.

A spinning black hole in its accretion disk.

Black holes, which are the densest known objects in the universe and form when huge stars collapse in on themselves, can pull each other together in mergers that take place over very long timescales, sometimes billions of years. Because of how long these mergers take, it means that the size of the universe when the black holes formed was much smaller than the version that exists when the holes actually collide. According to Michael Zevin, an astrophysicist at the University of Chicago, a NASA Hubble Fellow, and a co-author of the paper, the masses involved in any merger would depend on their original sizes upon formation, the shape and size of their orbits, and of course, their age.

This is still very much a hypothesis, but cosmological coupling—meaning properties of a particle or object being linked to properties of the cosmos—does exist elsewhere. Photons, or particles of light, are cosmologically coupled, but in the reverse: While black holes gain energy as they grow, photons lose energy as the universe expands, because their wavelengths become stretched out over time.

What makes this all the more mind-blowing is that the coupling trait wouldn’t be exclusive to black holes and photons. Gregory Tarlé, an astrophysicist at the University of Michigan and a co-author of the paper, told Gizmodo in an email that the matter of more ordinary masses, like your own body or the core of the Sun, would couple very, very weakly with the rate of the universe’s expansion. “It would seem that the effect only becomes observable in the most extreme environments in our universe: black holes and, possibly, neutron stars,” Tarlé said.

For now, this is just an idea, but Once a new gravitational wave detector is created, People studying these waves will be able to identify their source with more precision and better understand how collisions descended. New telescopes coming soon online will be able to capture almost any event in the observable universe, allowing astronomers to better see these events and their effects. Maybe we’re on the verge of something new.

More: See the magnetic field of a black hole in the new image from the Event Horizon Telescope



Source link

By admin

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *