Tue. Oct 19th, 2021

Your desk is It is composed of individual, distinct atoms, but from a distance its surface appears smooth. This general idea is a core part of all models in our physical world. We can describe what is happening as a whole without falling into the complex interaction between each atom and the electron.

So when a new theoretical state of matter is discovered whose microscopic properties are stubbornly fixed on all scales, many physicists refuse to believe in its existence.

“When I first heard about Fracton, I said it couldn’t be true, because it completely denies my prejudices about how systems behave,” he said. Nathan Cyberg, A theoretical physicist at the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study in New Jersey. “But I was wrong. I realized I was living in denial.”

Fracton’s theoretical possibilities Surprised physicists in 2011. Recently, these strange states of matter have led physicists to new theoretical frameworks that could help them deal with some of the more complex problems in basic physics.

Fractons are quadrilateral-particle-like entities that emerge from complex interactions between many elementary particles inside an element. But Fracton is even more bizarre than that Other external quasiparticles, Because they are able to move in a completely immobile or limited way. There is nothing in their environment that prevents fractions from moving; Rather it is an innate property of theirs. This means that the microscopic structure of fractions affects their behavior over long distances.

“It simply came to our notice then. For me, this is the strangest stage of the object, ”he said Xie Chen, A concentrated subject theorist at the California Institute of Technology.

Partial particles

In 2011, Jeongwan Ha, Then a graduate student at Caltech, looking for unusual phases of matter that were so stable Can be used to secure quantum memoryEven at room temperature. Using a computer algorithm, he introduced a new theoretical phase called Haah code. The phase quickly attracted the attention of other physicists because of its strangely immovable quadrilateral.

They seemed to be able to move individually, just like particle fractions, only in combination. Soon, more theoretical stages with similar features were found, and so in 2015 Haah – including Sea conquest And Liang FuCreated the word “fracton” For the odd partial quadrilateral. (A previous, neglected Paper written by Claudio Chaman Now the credit for the original discovery of fracton behavior is given.)

To see what is so exceptional between fracton phases, consider more ordinary particles like an electron, moving freely with an element. Some physicists find it strange but traditional way of understanding this movement is that electrons move because space is filled with electron-positron pairs and goes out of existence. A pair appears so that the positrons (reversely charged antiparticles of electrons) are on top of the original electrons and they are destroyed. This leaves the electron behind the pair, detached from the original electron. Since there is no way to differentiate between two electrons, what we understand is that a single electron is moving.

Now instead imagine that a pair of particles and antiparticles could not come out of nothingness but only their square. In this case, a square can arise so that an angle is above the original particle and destroys that angle. A second square then comes out of the void so that one side of it is destroyed by one side of the first square. It moves backwards in the opposite direction of the second class, also contains a particle and an antiparticle. The resulting movement is that a particle-anti-particle pair passes side by side in a straight line. In this world – an example of a fracton stage – the movement of a single particle is limited, but a pair can move easily.

Haah code takes the phenomenon to the extreme: particles can only move when new particles are called in an unending repetitive pattern called fractals. Say you have four particles arranged in a square, but when you zoom in on each corner you see another square of four particles that are close together. Zoom into a corner again and you find another square, and so on. Such a structure requires so much energy to implement in a vacuum that it is impossible to move such a fracton. This allows very stable qubits (quantum computing) bits to be stored in the system, as the environment cannot interfere with the fine state of qubits.

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