Wed. Dec 1st, 2021


Kepler-1649c Artist's impression on the surface of the exoplanet.

Kepler-1649c Artist’s impression on the surface of the exoplanet.
Pictures: NASA / Ames Research Center / Daniel Rutter

Evidence of aliens can actually be an easy thing for scientists to detect – proving that Evidence promises to be a big challenge that is valid. A new proposed structure created by NASA scientists could help.

“Our generation can realistically discover evidence of life beyond Earth,” announces a new perspective Paper Expressed in nature. “Responsibility comes with this privileged possibility.”

Indeed, a definite declaration of life outside of Earth is going to avoid us, but news of this magnitude will shake the foundations of our existence. So when the time comes কি should it ever come-to make big announcements for scientists, they are sure that hell needs to fix it. To help with this, The authors of the new paper present a systematic framework which It takes researchers Step by step Towards In the last line, and in a position from the end Which They can confidently announce the discovery of extraterrestrial life.

This guide, known as the ‘Confidence of Life Identification’ (CoLD) scale, is a long-awaited one, as it is not immediately clear how scientists will prove something that has never been proven before.

“I feel like we’re shaking a bit – that we don’t have a rigor, “James Green, NASA’s chief scientist and the first author of the new paper, explained it to me over the phone.” Our new scale brings Rigor ”

Green and his colleagues “want the scientific community to embrace the new structure, and to be completely behind for NASA and to fund research that progresses on this scale.” Such developments, he said, “will really help us scientifically in many cases.” Astronomer Mary Voitek from NASA headquarters in Washington, DC, co-authored the paper.

NASA's Curiosity rover on Mars.

NASA’s Curiosity rover on Mars.
Pictures: NASA / JPL-Caltech / MSSS

A significant problem with the current example, Green says, is that people are hoping for one of two answers: Either alien life has been discovered or not. This thirst for a binary yes-Or-There is no answer, he said, adding that the current state of our investigative technology is not realistic. What is needed instead is for scientists to communicate their initial results to each other, People, And press. The proposed structure will help in this regard, accordingly Green, because it would encourage communication and prevent scientists from “crying wolves”, as he said. Scientists, he said, need to be able to continue to dominate information with more confidence in order to create their stories and claim that there could be life on a planet.

The seven steps outlined in the framework are designed to repeatedly take astronomers to the top – that ultimate confidence level. Looking at these guidelines, it is clear that confirmation of life outside of Earth will not come in a single easy step and instead a Complete, Time dependent Process But hey, that’s how science sometimes has to work, especially when the target is millions of miles away.

The first step in the cold ladder is to detect a signal known as a result of biological activity, such as a molecule produced by life. We already have several examples of reaching Cold Level One, including claims Methane On Mars, Phosphine On Venus, and referred to as green, Oxygen in any cosmic body. Cold Level 1 was reached in 1996 after the analysis of a Martian meteorite Alan Hills 84001. One research team thought that meteorite-like lines were fossils, but these features were probably created when rocks erupted from the surface of Mars.

Microscopic image of ALH84001, which reveals fossil-like structures in the meteorites of Mars.

Microscopic image of ALH84001, which reveals fossil-like structures in the meteorite of Mars.
Pictures: NASA

Reaching one step is not a big deal – it is ongoing This goes beyond the initial stage which is proving to be difficult. The second level requires eliminating faulty instruments and misinterpretations of data as well as eliminating contamination. The apparent discovery of phosphine in Venus is a chemical Usually can Only produced by life – never crossed this stage, ForToo Because.

In the third step, scientists need to prove that the signal is capable of emanating from its environment. This could be attributed to a similar environment, such as an ancient lakebed on Earth (to mimic the condition of Mars) or a hydrothermal vent along the seabed (Saturn’s moon Enceladus or Jupiter’s moon to mimic the conditions in Europe). Attempts to prove the existence of life on Mars have reached this third cold stage, a strong case can be made; Remote observations of methane on Mars – a possible sign of life – were confirmed by ground observations by NASA’s Curiosity rover.

The next set of stages is strongly present But consistent Challenge For questionable signals, astronomers must exclude non-biological sources, obtain additional and independent observations, and eliminate alternative hypotheses. Remote sensing equipment can take scientists to the first and second levels, “but we need to be able to bring in additional information” and “get the necessary context,” Green said, adding that “the cold scale is meant to do this.”

Does life exist in the clouds of Venus?

Does life exist in the clouds of Venus?
Pictures: NASA / JPL-Caltech

The search for evidence for the existence of life on Mars is currently at a third level, as scientists have yet to prove that methane is being produced by non-biological sources. The good news is that this can be done, albeit theoretically. Scientists need to collect enough methane on Mars to run an isotopic analysis, which shows whether methane is being produced by abiotic or biological processes.

The seventh and final stage, according to the paper, will require “independent, follow-up monitoring of predicted biological behavior in the environment.” That last step is a kind of “proof is in the pudding” requirement, and it can be a big question depending on the location; Ensuring the presence of biology on Mars or Enceladus is one thing (since objects inside the solar system are within the range of satellites and probes), but confirming biology on an exoplanet is very light-Years from Earth presents a completely different proposition.

Green has presented a hypothetical scenario where astronomers could reach Cold Level Seven on Mars. He envisioned an aircraft, the successor to the Ingenuity helicopter সক্ষম capable of detecting methane leaks from underground sources. Follow-up observations at the same location will reveal a hidden voyage, which will lead to a drilling mission, which will eventually reach the water and pull the actual specimens of life. Bingo: Cold level has reached seven, at least according to this fictional scene.

The guidelines proposed by Green and his colleagues are difficult but intelligent. This roadmap can be used to ensure life in multiple contexts And To ensure life as we do not know — such as life that does not need water to survive. As Green explained, life needs to be defined as the need for metabolism, reproduction and evolution. If it could do all this, “we’ll tell that life,” he said.

The next step, in addition to scale refinement, is community shopping. Not all scientists want to share their results with others Or look at the proposed structure, but Green says that if researchers expect to receive NASA funding for a project, they will have to comply with the new rules.

“I want scientists to get NASA money to evaluate themselves and determine what cold index they are on,” he told me. “So when you or I read their paper and see, say Cold 4 or Cold 5, we’ll know how much progress they’ve made,” he said. Importantly, we will learn more about how much work still needs to be done. In this way, scientists can “focus on what the next steps need to be,” Green said.

More: Just Vent Bust is the most promising signal of Alien Intelligence.



Source link

By admin

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *