Sun. Nov 28th, 2021

In fact, many multicellular cells of the sponge usually reveal genetic modules associated with specialized cells in complex organisms, such as vertebrates. For example, spongy neurodegene cells not only secrete some of the presynaptic apparatus of neurons, but also the immune genes. (It is possible that if the neuroid cells monitor the microbial contents of the digestive chambers for the sponge, these immune genes play a role in that.) ; Pinaxocytes have some sensitive apparatus that responds to nitric oxide, a vasodilator.

“Nitric oxide is what relaxes our smooth muscle in our blood vessels, so when our blood vessels dilate, nitric oxide causes that relaxation,” Muser said. “And we actually showed through experiments in the paper that nitric oxide is also controlling the compression of this sponge.” Like glutamate, nitric oxide may be part of an early signaling process to coordinate primitive behavior in sponges, he suggests.

“Our data are very consistent with the idea that a large number of functional parts of machinery existed early in the evolution of animals,” Musa said. “And many early animal evolution began to subdivide it into different cells. But perhaps these first cell types were very versatile and they had to do more than one thing.” The oldest living cells, like their close protozoans, probably had to be cellular Swiss Army knives. As multicellular organisms develop, their cells may play a different role, a division of labor that may lead to more specialized cell types. But animals may be divided into different species and different dimensions.

If the fusion of genetic modules has been an important factor in early animal evolution, then comparing the arrangement and expression of those modules across different species can tell us about their history এবং and the potential limitations of how randomly they can be arranged. One researcher who is looking for answers Arnau Sebe-Pedros, Who studied cell type evolution at the Barcelona Center for Genomic Regulation and who first published Atlas of cell type Sponge, Placozoan And comb jelly in 2018.

Sebé-Pedrós thinks that the spatial configuration of genes along chromosomes may be revealing because the genes may share the regulatory apparatus located together. “I am shocked to see the degree of preservation of gene order in the animal genome,” he said. He suspects that the need to co-regulate sets of functionally related genes puts them around the same chromosomal.

Scientists are still learning how cell types evolve and relate to each other. But just as it is important to clarify the muddy source of animal evolution, sponge cell atlases are also making a significant contribution to revealing the biological possibilities of animal cells. Sebé-Pedrós said, “Understanding the origin of animals is important not only for us, but also for understanding things that may be radically different from what we know about other animals.”

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Original story Reprinted with permission from Quanta Magazine, An editorial independent publication Simons Foundation The aim is to improve public understanding of science by covering research and development trends in mathematics and physical and life sciences.

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