The New Kind of Space explosion reveals the birth of a black hole

In 2018, astronomers Shocked Find a bizarre explosion in a galaxy 200 million light-years away. It was not like any ordinary supernova seen before – it was both brief and bright. The event was given an official title at AT2018CO, but soon it was driven by another colorful nickname: Cow ow

Transient event short A transient explanation known as transient. Some thought it might be a star shattered by a nearby black hole, but others favored the “failed supernova” scene, where the black hole literally eats a star from the outside. They have to look for more cow-like events to be sure.

More than two years later, they got one.

From October 12, 2020, telescopes seen as something in a galaxy 3 billion light-years away became incredibly bright, then disappeared from view. It treated almost identical cows, astronomers said A paper Last week the online preprint site RX.URJ posted that they had come to the conclusion that this must be the same kind of episode. In keeping with tradition, it was given its own animal-inspired name: camel.

“It’s really exciting,” said Danny Koppizans, an astronomer at Northwestern University. “This discovery of a new transient like the 2016 Evo shows that it is not a complete oddball. It’s a new kind of transition that we’re seeing. “

The cow was completely surprised, and the astronomers weren’t sure when they appeared to see it. In contrast, the camel was like stealing a new alarm system. “We realized it within days of it being closed,” said Daniel Parley, an astronomer at Liverpool’s John Moores University who led the new study. “And we’ve got a lot of follow-up data.”

Four days later, the team used it to gain important information for the use of binoculars in the Canary Islands and Hawaii. They are after Be careful To other astronomers in a service known as the Telegram of Astronomy.

The event was given two titles. One, the 2020X, came from a global catalog of all transients, and the other came from the ZTF20 Sigmail Zuiki Transient facility, the telescope where it was discovered. The team turned the latter into its “camel” nickname. “Axend didn’t have the same ring as this one,” Parley said.

Like its predecessor, the camel became very bright in a very short time, reaching the top in two or three days. It was about 100 times brighter than any ordinary supernova. It then decreases rapidly in a process that lasts only a few days instead of a week. “It fades very quickly, and it stays hot when it fades,” Pearly said.

Prior to this discovery, astronomers collected historical data to find additional events like two cows, “Koala” and CSS161010, However, the camel was first seen in real time and was thus studied in detail from the cow.

The four events have the same features. They brighten quickly, then fade quickly. They are also hot, which makes them look blue. However these “fast blue optical transients” are not identical.

“The explosion itself and the way the zombies behave in the afterlife is quite similar,” said Anna Ho, an astronomer at the University of California, Berkeley, who discovered the koala and was part of the camel’s discovery team. The phenomena are seen as a kind of explosion from all the stars that collide with nearby gas and dust. “However, at the collision stage where you are experiencing a collision with the surrounding material, there is a difference in the amount of material lying around and the way the shock wave from the explosion is flowing through the object.”

The top idea at the moment is Failed-supernova guess. The process begins when the mass of our Sun reaches the end of the life of a star about 20 times larger and exhausts its fuel. Its core then collapses, Usually starting with what would be a regular supernova, where a dense object called a neutron star is left behind and matter is brought back.

But in cases like camels and cows, “something unusual happened in the process of the original collapse,” Parli said. “What we claim is that instead of a neutron star falling, it falls directly into a black hole and most of them fall into a black hole.”

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