What would it take for humans to colonize the moon and Mars?

The end of 2024 will mark an important milestone in the history of U.S. spacecraft. American astronauts have traveled more than LEO since the 1970s and 1930s, not only will it be the first opportunity for a woman to set foot on the moon. The Artemis mission will provide the critical foundation necessary for humanity to further explore and potentially colonize our nearest cosmic neighbor and serve as a jumping point in our quest to finally reach Mars. Given However, NASA and its allies will face a significant challenge in keeping their lunar colon colonists alive.

In the age of the Apollo missions, the idea of ​​creating even a semi-permanent presence on the surface of the moon was ridiculous – mainly because it had numerous moons. Rob Mueller, a senior technologist at NASA Advanced Projects Development, said during the SXSW 2021 panel that samples were collected and returned to Earth during that time. “It was common sense, there was no water on the moon, and this was the idea for many years [aerospace] Community. “

It wasn’t until the late 90s that NASA had a neutron spectrometer I have found evidence of hydrogen atoms , Indicating the possible presence of water ice. And it wasn’t until last October Not only squirrels in deep, dark lunar craters have detected water on the surface of the moon’s sun.

Paul Hertz, director of the astrophysics department at the Department of Science Mission at NASA headquarters, said, “We had an indication that we know that known water – we know that known water – may be present in the moon’s sunlight.” . “Now we know it exists. This discovery challenges our perception of the lunar surface and raises interesting questions about relevant resources for deep space exploration. “

Based on this new evidence, Moller estimates that “every day for 2,000 years, there should be enough water ice to launch a space shuttle-like vehicle. So the moon has plenty of water. The strategy is, we need to find it, access it, and It needs to be dug up and then used economically.

The moon contains a cache of water – which can be used both to quench the thirst of astronauts and to strengthen their rockets – a revelation that could create a resource we haven’t seen since the forties-nineteen, said Pete Carato, a senior consultant engineer at Bectel Corporation. Mentioned during the panel discussion. “So, the next gold rush reached me at the moon’s south pole and it’s a harsh environment.”

This is because large amounts of water are located in permanently shaded areas where the sun’s warm rays cannot reach the ice and it cannot evaporate outside the moon’s surface. The problem is, temperatures in this region hover around an intense 40 degrees Kelvin, which is cooler than liquid nitrogen. It’s so cool that even modern mining rigs built for the world’s most extreme environments can have a very difficult time operating there. “Once you get the metal parts down in the winter, they become almost like glass,” Carreto announced.

“It’s a tough vacuum on the moon, so there’s going to be some surprising problems with your metallic cooling,” Mueller added. “If two metal surfaces are exposed to each other, they could actually bind into a solid void, and we’ve seen this before in space. This is a well-known problem. “

Ubiquitous, razor-sharp, Electrostatic dust found on the moon also poses a threat to colon colonists – NASA has jumped since Apollo 1 ast astronaut Harrison Smith landed the first “lunar hay fever”. This dust is not only trapped in rovers and spacesuits, but also in small particles sensitive to electronics, clog filters, jam zippers and joints. To deal with the electrical attraction of dust, however, its effectiveness can be seen up to scale. The micromyocytes themselves, whose surface effects create this dangerous dust, must also be considered when designing lunar habitats.

But unlike the Apollo era that started the Cold War, the American government is no longer running it alone. The Artemis program is a great host as well as deeply coordinating its efforts And equipped the work with commercial partners such as SpaceX In orbit around the moon in 2024 (cool for $ 331.8 million).

“It allows us to do this for a reasonable cost with a reasonable return on investment but we as NASA cannot do that. NASA is a government agency, the role of the government in facilitating the industry, “and so we are setting up the structure, the infrastructure and all the processes, the legal framework, the communication, the launch site. It’s all necessary, and then the private industry can come and do what they can to make some money and create an economically efficient system. “

While partnering with other nations in this effort is a great way to spread fairly up-front spending, it can be a source of conflict as to which member nations will have access and rights to which resources. At present such matters are governed by the 1967 United Nations Outer Space Treaty, but its language is not entirely clear, leaving the rules open for various lessons. “The U.S. explanation is that we will not claim land or claim sovereignty, but we have the right to use resources and the right to use these resources in the commercial industry,” Mueller said. What’s more, the Outer Space Agreement lacks specific enforcement mechanisms and its rules make it more like a consultation, yet it has not been ratified by any of the signatory countries. The Artemis Accords are similarly guidelines rather than guidelines, although enough countries sign it and work within its framework, he continued, “over time it becomes law in practice.”

The moon gripped deadly radiation, micrometorite effects, and dust, as well as Mars and exploration, and the final colony has many of the same challenges, not to mention the six-month journey required to reach the East for the next three days. This huge distance also disrupts our ability to remotely control the rovers and other teleoperated robotic systems we send to the Rever Planet due to the few minutes of communication intervals.

Potential explorers and colon settlers will also have to contend with the wide range of temperatures that exist at each destination. For example, the side of the Sun-Ward on the Moon may be as warm as 125 িয় C, but the shaded side may drop to -175 পড়ে C, causing intense heat pressure on the objects moving between them. Protection from galactic and solar radiation also has to factor heavily into any decision regarding stabilization on the surface. Shaded valleys and cliffside locations provide a higher degree of natural protection so we need to consider local topography carefully when choosing settlement locations. One possible solution to the radiation problem is to enclose our artificial habitat with a 3D-printed shell made of marshalian soil, mentioned during the panel, by Jassier de Casitler, Head of Design Technology and Innovation at Hazel.

In these increasingly long-term missions it will be extremely important to maintain the physical and mental health of the crew and to perform it without the help of home. “We travel more around the world,” said Beth Haley, head of the Emergency Clinic at Hepital du Valais, “the treatment models we may need and the stress on the crew will vary,” she said. Each crew member will be asked to play multiple roles during the mission, exceeding their individual characteristics.

If we manage to overcome these challenges, the rewards will be substantial. “It’s very difficult to survive in space,” Miller said in a separate panel discussion at SXSW 2021. “The good news is that we have a lot of resources in and around our solar system, compared to almost infinite resources.” We have on earth. “It includes everything from water, atmospheric gas, volatile and rare metals to the crew’s own trash waste to energy.” If you have sunlight, you can have access to energy. “Humanity has already shown that it Able to sit in some of the most unhealthy regions.With endless perseverance, research and international cooperation the stars may soon come within our reach.

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